|Reference Type||Conference Proceedings|
|Author(s)||Ellmer, A.;Schaal, S.|
|Title||Are reaching movements planned in kinematic or dynamic coordinates?|
|Journal/Conference/Book Title||Abstracts of Neural Control of Movement Conference (NCM 2010)|
|Keywords||computational motor control, planning, generalization|
|Abstract||Whether human reaching movements are planned and optimized in kinematic
(task space) or dynamic (joint or muscle space) coordinates is still an
issue of debate. The first hypothesis implies that a planner produces a
desired end-effector position at each point in time during the reaching
movement, whereas the latter hypothesis includes the dynamics of the
muscular-skeletal control system to produce a continuous end-effector
Previous work by Wolpert et al (1995) showed that when subjects were
led to believe that their straight reaching paths corresponded to curved
paths as shown on a computer screen, participants adapted the true path
of their hand such that they would visually perceive a straight line
in visual space, despite that they actually produced a curved path.
These results were interpreted as supporting the stance that reaching
trajectories are planned in kinematic coordinates. However, this
experiment could only demonstrate that adaptation to altered paths, i.e.
the position of the end-effector, did occur, but not that the precise
timing of end-effector position was equally planned, i.e., the trajectory.
Our current experiment aims at filling this gap by explicitly testing whether
position over time, i.e. velocity, is a property of reaching movements
that is planned in kinematic coordinates.
In the current experiment, the velocity profiles of cursor movements
corresponding to the participant's hand motions were skewed either to
the left or to the right; the path itself was left unaltered.
We developed an adaptation paradigm, where the skew of the velocity profile was
introduced gradually and participants reported no awareness of any
Preliminary results indicate that the true hand motion of participants
did not alter, i.e. there was no adaptation so as to counterbalance the
introduced skew. However, for some participants, peak hand velocities
were lowered for higher skews, which suggests that participants
interpreted the manipulation as mere noise due to variance in their own
In summary, for a visuomotor transformation task, the hypothesis of a
planned continuous end-effector trajectory predicts adaptation to a
modified velocity profile. The current experiment found no systematic adaptation
under such transformation, but did demonstrate an effect that is more in
accordance that subjects could not perceive the manipulation and rather
interpreted as an increase of noise.
|Place Published||Naples, Florida, 2010|
|Short Title||Are reaching movements planned in kinematic or dynamic coordinates?|